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What are the advantages of the reduction gearbox

update:25-04-2021
abstract:

Advantages of gearbox:   Torque doubling: When embedded […]

Advantages of gearbox:
  Torque doubling: When embedded on the output shaft of the motor, the gear head provides a mechanical advantage. The number of gears, and the gears of each, adds a mechanical advantage. If a motor produces 100 Ib-in of torque. Then, adding a 5:1 gear head will produce nearly 500 lb-in of output torque. The specific number depends on the efficiency of the gear head.

   Reduction: The gear head is called a gear reducer, because most reduction motors increase the output torque and reduce the output speed. If a motor running at 1000rpm is equipped with a gear with a gear ratio of 5:1, its output is 200rpm. This deceleration method improves the performance of the system. Because many motors cannot operate effectively at low rpm.

  Suppose a stone grinding machine must run at 15rpm. At this speed, the cogging of the motor makes the rotation of the stone gears inconsistent. The variable resistance on the rocky ground makes the rotation of the gear unpredictable. In contrast, installing a 100:1 gear head for the motor enables the latter to operate at 1500rpm. Despite changes in friction and load, the motor-gear-head combination provides a more consistent output power and smooth gear rotation.

  Inertial matching: For more than 20 years, servo motor manufacturers have promoted lightweight materials, dense copper windings, and high-energy magnets that can generate more torque in specific sizes. Despite such benefits, this trend has increased the risk of mismatch between the servo motor and the load.

   If the load inertia greatly exceeds the parameters of the motor, then this will cause a transient overshoot or increase the settling time-these will reduce the output of the production line. On the other hand, for application scenarios, a motor that is too large will have a higher initial cost and will consume more power to increase its own inertia.

   And a gear head can match the inertia of the motor according to the load inertia, resulting in a more responsive system. The inertia of the motor is equal to the inertia of the load divided by the square of the gear head speed ratio. Fast start and stop applications benefit from well-matched motor and load inertia.

  Cost saving: Use gear heads to increase torque, reduce speed, and match inertia. At the same time, the cost of the system can also be reduced through a smaller motor and drive. If an application scenario requires 200 Ib-in, 300 rpm, using a servo motor to drive the load requires at least a 142mm motor and a drive that provides 30A. Such a system would cost at least US$6,000. In contrast, the cost of using a 90mm geared motor including a gear head is only about 3,300 US dollars.
Types of gear heads:
  
   Straight-edge gears: They are compact, cost-effective, and have high transmission ratios. And their tooth surface is perpendicular to the gear surface, so they are noisy and easy to wear.

   worm gear: worm gear transmission is a typical low-cost right-angle output solution. Their simplicity allows different configurations including hollow shaft and dual shaft output. The main advantages are high precision, low noise and low maintenance costs. Disadvantages include low efficiency and irreversibility.

   Planetary gear: It includes a sun gear that drives the surrounding planetary gears. The planetary gear moves in the ring gear. And, thereby rotating the output shaft of the gear head. Its advantages include compact size, high efficiency, low backlash, and a high torque-to-traction ratio. The disadvantage lies in the complexity and high design cost.

   Harmonic gear drive includes a wave generator, flexible foil, and a round spine. Its advantages are low weight, compact structure design, no backlash, high gear ratio, high torque, and coaxial input and output. The disadvantage lies in the lower torsional stiffness and higher mechanical damage caused by the pre-tightening force of the flexible spline.

   Cycloid drive: It has an input shaft that drives the eccentric bearing to drive the eccentric disc. The output shaft of the drive has a roller passing through a cavity on the surface of the cycloid disc. The cycloid speed reducer has the characteristics of high speed ratio. The disadvantages include vibration caused by the movement of the cycloid, which can cause damage to the teeth on the surface of the cycloid disc.

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